The venitian works of defense between the XV and XVII century

Candidature to the UNESCO World Heritage List

The candidature concerns the defensive system built by the Republic of Venice between the XV and XVII centuries. It is a serial transnational site extending over more than 1,000 km and made up of nine components (Bergamo, Peschiera del Garda, Palmanova and Venice, Zara, Sebenico, Curzola, Castelnuovo, and Cattaro) divided into three states (Italy, Croatia, and Montenegro) all facing the Adriatic Sea. The choice of these places reflects the historical division of the Venetian domains into Land States (Italy) and Sea States (Croatia and Montenegro), facing the Adriatic Sea which was once known as the “Gulf of Venice”. The project, which was launched in 2007, was included in the Tentative List in February 2014.

The UNESCO criteria this candidature is based on are the following:

- (ii): be the manifestation of an important exchange of human values over a given period or in a specific cultural area, in the development of architecture or technology, monumental arts, urban planning or landscaping;

– (iii): bring a unique or exceptional testimony of a cultural tradition or of a civilization which is still alive or has disappeared;

– (iv): be an outstanding example of a type of building or an architectural or technological set, or of a landscape which illustrates one or more significant milestones in the history of humanity.

Criteria for inscription

To be acknowledged as being of exceptional universal value, a site needs to meet the requirements of integrity and authenticity – as defined in the UNESCO Operational Guidelines – and possess an appropriate system of protection and management guaranteeing its preservation. Depending on the type of heritage (cultural or natural) and its context, the sites need to be selected in order to meet these requirements.

For more information:


The projects in the Management Plan substantiate the methodologies for the protection, preservation and enhancement of the UNESCO Site. Law no. 77/2006 “Special measures for the protection and use of Italian sites of cultural, landscape and environmental interest inserted in the World Heritage List and placed under the protection of the UNESCO” provides for financial measures to support these activities.

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